Under public pressure, much of which has been caused by race baiting, European countries have, for many years, pushed to curb migration and clamped down on border control, leaving many to describe these actions as 'Fortress Europe'. However they have outsourced migration control and the responsibility that lies with it to countries such as Libya and Niger, even though the UN and other humanitarian organisations have warned neither of the two has the infrastructure or training to abide by international law and treat migrants humanely. The EU has given tens of millions of euros to enforce border control and boost the Nigerien police which was tasked with stopping migrants trying to cross into Libya. In April 2017, the EU also pledged a further 90 million euro ($107m) for ``improved migration management`` in Libya. The Italian government gave the Libyan Coast Guard new boats and millions of euros to support their operations. It has done so disregarding accusations that its forces are rounding up migrants and refugees and sending them to prisons, with widespread abuses at all stages. The United Nations has condemned the EU helping the Libyan authorities detain migrants and has described its actions as ``inhuman``. UN monitors visited some of the detention centres in Libya and were ``shocked`` by what they saw. They found ``thousands of emaciated and traumatized men, women and children piled on top of each other, locked up in hangars with no access to the most basic necessities, and stripped of their human dignity``; they found out that beatings and rape were commonplace.
Anti-Blackness in the Arab world is well spread and well documented, it is deep rooted and has existed for centuries. Mauritanian government practices have been accused of being undeclared apartheid, severely discriminating on the basis of race. In Sudan, beginning in 1991, elders of the Zaghawa people complained that they were victims of an intensifying Arab apartheid campaign, with policies described as ethnic cleansing against non-Arabs in Darfur. In Libya ‘abd’ and ‘khadim/ jariya’ meaning male/ female slave are descriptions applied to describe black people. But racist anti-blackness goes beyond Arab countries, the silence from the western European countries on this attrocity and similar attrocities that affect Black people also highlights deep rooted entrenched racial prejudices.
There is a huge international market for human organs, including those of children and babies. Wealthy patients willing to pay extortionate sums for kidneys, hearts and pancreases provide a gruesome stream of revenue for organised criminal networks. Human organs bring in big bucks reaching tens of thousands of pounds. African migrants and refugees who are unable to afford the fare to make the ardous journey across the Mediterranean are sold by smugglers to organ harvesters. In 2016 mother Adar Hassan Adaawe and her two children 3 month old Abukar Abdikarim and 18 month old Anfa Abdikarim, were found dumped in the Egyptian sea along with 6 other bodies. All bodies autopsy like scars down their chests, you can still find the images on the internet but be warned, they are very disturbing.
Poverty and desperation caused by decades of international foreign policy from the World Bank, IMF, WPO and western governments, along with big multi-national companies tax avoidance, known as capital flight, has crippled man sub-saharan African countries, and has ensured they remain underdeveloped, slowing their progress to near stagnation in some cases. The affect has caused poverty and desperation for citizens, with people from the south fleeing the vestiges of wars that have left entire nations in ruin. From the east, they escape a life of indefinite military servitude and violent conflict. From the west, they evade destitution and governments that arbitrarily jail whomever they please.
Years of outside interference in many sub-saharan African countries, including how they are led, who they are led by, how they manage their economy and forced debt has had a significant impact on the self-governance of many African countries. Corrupt despot leaders have been propped up by foreign parties whilst good leaders have been undermined, ousted and even murdered by those who saw such good leadership as a threat to their security/wealth. From world governance organisations to multinational corporations to former colonial empires and non-colonial empires, all have had and continue to have a significant impact on the governance ability of African leaders. Even foreign NGO's have had can prevent good governance within a country, by relieving governments of their duty to provide for their citizens and being held to account by their citizens when they fail to do so.